Android Full Disk Encryption Workflow (default encryption)

This study is based on Android Marshmallow.
Android full disk encryption use dm-crypt, which works with block devices. Please refer to the following docs for more detail:
Full Disk Encryption

How to setup full disk encryption

Android support forceencrypt and encryptable encryption flags, and only support ext4 and f2fs file systems.

Setup forceencrypt fstab.bullhead:

/dev/block/platform/soc.0/f9824900.sdhci/by-name/userdata     /data           ext4    noatime,nosuid,nodev,barrier=1,data=ordered,nomblk_io_submit,noauto_da_alloc,errors=panic wait,check,forceencrypt=/dev/block/platform/soc.0/f9824900.sdhci/by-name/metadata 

Setup encryptable fstab.hammerhead:

/dev/block/platform/msm_sdcc.1/by-name/userdata     /data           ext4    noatime,nosuid,nodev,barrier=1,data=ordered,nomblk_io_submit,noauto_da_alloc,errors=panic wait,check,encryptable=/dev/block/platform/msm_sdcc.1/by-name/metadata 

Related source code:

  • init.rc: system/core/init/builtins.cpp
  • fs_mgr: system/core/fs_mgr/fs_mgr.c
  • Vold: system/vold/cryptfs.c
  • Ext4Crypt: system/vold/Ext4Crypt.cpp
  • VoldCryptCmdListener: system/vold/CryptCommandListener.cpp
  • MountService: frameworks/base/services/core/java/com/android/server/MountService.java

Properties:

  • vold.decrypt: fs_mgr and Vold use this property to notify init.rc.
  • vold.post_fs_data_done: Vold set it to 0 will trigger init.rc(on post-fs-data) to prepare necessary path in /data
  • vold.encrypt_progress: Set by Vold to display the percentage value.
  • vold.encrypt_time_remaining: Set by Vold for UX during encryption progress.
  • ro.crypto.state: Set by init to declare encryption status.
  • ro.crypto.type: Set by init to determine crypto type (file or block).
  • ro.crypto.fs_crypto_blkdev: Set by Vold save the name of the crypto block device so we can mount it when restarting the framework.

Encryptable flow

As a encryptable device, you can use Settings to lunch a full disk encryption:
Settings -> Security -> Encryption -> Encrypt (tablet/phone)

  1. Encryption confirm
    When you press Encrypt, CryptKeeperConfirm will call mountService.encryptStorage(), MountService use CryptdConnector send command cryptfs enablecrypto inplace default_password to start encrypt process.

  2. encrypt flags detection
    Vold receive enablecrypto command and get encrypt parameters in fstab.{ro.hardware}
    Set or.crypto.state to unencrypted
    Set vold.decrypt to trigger_shutdown_framework
    init.rc receive trigger_shutdown_framework to take down framework

  3. Unmount data
    Vold unmount data partition and mount tmpfs to /data Set vold.encrypt_progress to 0
    Set vold.post_fs_data_done to 0 and wait DATA_PREP_TIMEOUT for init.rc set vold.post_fs_data_done to 1
    init receive vold.post_fs_data_done will create necessary path in /data
    Set vold.encrypt_progress to 1
    Vold set vold.decrypt to trigger_restart_min_framework and create crypto device via create_crypto_blk_dev()
    Save Key to /dev/block/platform/msm_sdcc.1/by-name/metadata
    init receive trigger_restart_min_framework will bring up framework to show progress.

  4. Encrypt data
    Vold call cryptfs_enable_all_volumes to do data encryption.
    Call update_progress() to set vold.encrypt_progress and vold.encrypt_time_remaining value.
    After encryption Vold set sys.powerctl to reboot.
    Reboot system…

  5. Detect encrypted /data
    init.rc: mount_all ./fstab.{ro.hardware}
    Vold fs_mgr_mount_all(): possibly an encryptable blkdev /dev/block/platform/msm_sdcc.1/by-name/userdata for mount /data type ext4 )
    Vold fs_mgr_do_tmpfs_mount /data (mount tmpfs to /data).
    Set ro.crypto.state to encrypted
    Set ro.crypto.type to block
    Set vold.decrypt to trigger_default_encryption init.rc receive trigger_default_encryption will call defaultcrypto service to run cryptfs mountdefaultencrypted

  6. Mount data Vold run mountdefaultencrypted
    Call test_mount_encrypted_fs() to verify password.
    Set ro.crypto.state to encrypted
    Attempt to mount the volume with default_password and succeeded
    Unmount tmpfs, and mount the real /data volume.
    Set vold.decrypt to trigger_restart_framework

Forceencrypt flow

The difference with encryptable flag is that forceencrypt is auto encrypt at first boot, and no need to reboot during encrypt/decrypt.

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